Critically examine organisations using two out of the following three metaphors – machines, organisms and political systems – and explain with organisational examples the strengths and weaknesses of organisations that each metaphor highlights.

COMPULSORY QUESTIONS – 500 WORDS EACH

1. Metaphors provide ways of viewing organisations. Critically examine organisations using two out of the following three metaphors – machines, organisms and political systems – and explain with organisational examples the strengths and weaknesses of organisations that each metaphor highlights.
2. Setting organizational goals and targets is an essential part of strategy. From the perspective of goal theory, critically discuss the positive and negative effects of organisational goals on ethical behaviours of leaders and provide organisational examples to support your argument.

CHOOSE 1 FROM THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS – 1500 WORDS

3. Employees often can be demotivated and dissatisfied with their job. Critically discuss the causes of poor employee motivation and job satisfaction with reference to two motivational theories, and identify actions managers can take to increase levels of motivation and job satisfaction.
4. Critically evaluate two traditional versus two shared styles of leadership in terms of their effects on employees commitment to the organisation. Are these styles mutually exclusive or can they be used together? Illustrate your arguments with organisational examples.
5. Organisational culture can help or hinder success. Critically examine types of organisational culture from two perspectives and discuss the factors that can influence or change cultures over time.

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